During the first few seconds of exercise, the muscles get energy from stored ATP. After about 10 minutes, most of the ATP used to fuel exercise is produced by anaerobic metabolism. In about 2 minutes, anaerobic metabolism of glucose becomes the predominant source of ATP.
Effects of live yeast supplementation on weanling pig performance E. Dorton Summary Effects of yeast supplementation to diets with or without an antibiotic and high levels of copper and zinc on nursery pig performance were evaluated.
Yeast supplementation appeared to work in concert with the other growth promotants zinc, copper, and antibiotics used in this experiment.
Supplementation of yeast to diets containing these growth promotants improved pig growth performance resulting in pigs that were 2 kg heavier than control pigs after the 6 week nursery period. However, yeast supplementation was not effective in improving pig performance in diets without zinc, copper, and antibiotic as growth promotants.
Based on these results, yeast supplementation to diets used in current commercial pig production appears to be an effective strategy to improve pig performance. Introduction Probiotics, such as yeast, have the ability to stimulate digestion and aid in maintaining microbial equilibrium in the gut.
Live yeast, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contains numerous enzymes that could be released into the intestine and aid existing enzymes in the digestive tract in the digestion of feed.
In addition, yeast contains vitamins and other nutrients that may produce beneficial production responses Kornegay et al. In monogastrics, research conducted to test the effectiveness of yeast cultures on performance is limited and variable Kornegay et al.
In addition, the effects of yeast supplementation in diets with or without pharmacological levels of copper, zinc, and antibiotics were studied to determine if yeast could provide benefits similar to growth promotants, or if it could act in concert with these ingredients.
Materials and Methods Ninety-six pigs were weaned at seventeen days of age. Pigs were housed four pigs per pen, using a total of 24 pens in one room.
Each pen had slatted floors and was equipped with a watering device and feeder, which allowed pigs ad libitum access to water and feed.
The pigs were allotted to one of four dietary treatments based on initial weight and litter origin. There were six pens per treatment and a total of twenty-four pigs per treatment.
Pigs were housed in an environmentally controlled nursery with a forced air ventilation system. Initial temperature in the nursery was 27oC and was lowered 1oC weekly. The nursery was not cleaned prior to the experiment to provide a more challenging environment to the pigs.
Pigs were fed three diet phases prestarter, starter 1, and starter 2 in 2-week intervals Table 1. Pig weights and feed consumption were measured on a weekly basis for six weeks. The model included block, diet type, yeast supplementation and the diet type by yeast supplementation interaction.With rapid advances in understanding molecular pathogenesis of human diseases in the era of genome sciences and systems biology, it is anticipated that increasing numbers of therapeutic genes or targets will become available for targeted therapies.
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3 Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI , USA 4 Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI , USA 5 Macromolecular Science and Engineering Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI , USA.