For our session this afternoon, you may be wondering: Dionne and David Brooks, for three or four years, have been saying we must do a session on Reinhold Niebuhr. We used to say we think you all should know about Niebuhr. And Obama went on for 25 minutes about his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr.
Many words some originally from Greek for common objects therefore entered the vocabulary of these Germanic people via Latin Influenced me before the tribes reached Britain what is known as the Continental or Zero Period: Christian missionaries coming to Britain in the 6th century and 7th century brought with them Latin religious terms which entered the English language: Some of these words are ultimately of Greek origin, as much of the technical language of Christianity developed from the Greek of the New Testament and the works of those Fathers of the Church who wrote in Greek.
During this time, the Catholic Church had great influence on the development and expansion of the Old English language. Catholic monks mainly wrote or copied text in Latin, the prevalent Medieval lingua franca of Europe.
However, when monks occasionally wrote in the vernacular, Latin words were translated by finding suitable Old English equivalents. Often, a Germanic word was adopted and given a new shade of meaning in the process.
Previously, the Old English word simply meant "good news," but its meaning was extended in Old English to fit a religious context.
It was adapted by Old English scribes and christened to become the word bless. Similarly fullwiht literally, "full-being" and the verb fullian came to mean "baptism" and "to baptize" respectively, but probably originally referred to some kind of rite of passage.
Whenever a suitable Old English substitute could not be found, a Latin word could be chosen instead, and many Latin words entered the Old English lexicon in this way. Other words came in, even though an adequate Old English term already existed, and this caused enrichment of the Old English vocabulary: All told, approximately words were borrowed from Latin during the Old English period.
Latin words tended to be literary or scholarly terms and were not very common. The majority of them did not survive into the Middle English Period. Middle Ages[ edit ] The Norman Conquest of gave England a two tiered society with an aristocracy which spoke Anglo-Norman and a lower class which spoke English.
From until Henry IV of England ascended the throne inthe royal court of England spoke a Norman language that became progressively Gallicised through contact with French.
However, the Norman rulers made no attempt to suppress the English language, apart from not using it at all in their court. Inthe Anglo-Normans lost their continental territories in Normandy and became wholly English. Continued use of Latin by the Church and centres of learning brought a steady, though dramatically reduced, influx of new Latin lexical borrowings.
Inkhorn term During the English Renaissancefrom around —, some 10, to 12, words entered the English lexicon, including lexicon. Many of these words were borrowed directly from Latin, both in its classical and medieval forms.
In turn, Late Latin also included borrowings from Greek.
Classical compound The dawn of the age of scientific discovery in the 17th and 18th centuries created the need for new words to describe newfound knowledge. Many words were borrowed from Latin, while others were coined from Latin roots, prefixes, and suffixes, and Latin word elements freely combine with elements from all other languages including native Anglo-Saxon words.
Some of the words which entered English at this time are: Consequences for English[ edit ] In addition to the large number of historical borrowings and coinages, today Latinate words continue to be coined in English — see classical compounds — particularly in technical contexts.
A number of more subtle consequences include: Most of the vocabulary of pre-school children in English-speaking countries is made up of native English words, rather than foreign-derived words.
Indirect influence[ edit ] It is not always easy to tell at what point a word entered English, or in what form. Some words have come into English from Latin more than once, through French or another Romance language at one time and directly from Latin at another. The first word in each pair came directly from Latin, while the second entered English from French or Spanish, in the case of armada.Hi Joan, Great book list.
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