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For more information, please see the full notice. Years of violent internal protest, weakening white commitment, international economic and cultural sanctions, economic struggles, and the end of the Cold War brought down white minority rule in Pretoria.
The Cold War then was in its early stages. This set the stage for successive administrations to quietly support the Apartheid regime as a stalwart ally against the spread of communism. Inside South Africa, riots, boycotts, and protests by black South Africans against white rule had occurred since the inception of independent white rule in Opposition intensified when the Nationalist Party, assuming power ineffectively blocked all legal and non-violent means of political protest by non-whites.
The African National Congress ANC and its offshoot, the Pan Africanist Congress PACboth of which envisioned a vastly different form of government based on majority rule, were outlawed in and many of its leaders imprisoned. The most famous prisoner was a leader of the ANC, Nelson Mandela, who had become a symbol of the anti-Apartheid struggle.
While Mandela and many political prisoners remained incarcerated in South Africa, other anti-Apartheid leaders fled South Africa and set up headquarters in a succession of supportive, independent African countries, including Guinea, Tanzania, Zambia, and neighboring Mozambique where they continued the fight to end Apartheid.
It was not until the s, however, that this turmoil effectively cost the South African state significant losses in revenue, security, and international reputation. The international community had begun to take notice of the brutality of the Apartheid regime after white South African police opened fire on unarmed black protesters in the town of Sharpeville inkilling 69 people and wounding others.
Fearful of losing friends in Africa as de-colonization transformed the continent, powerful members of the Security Council, including Great Britain, France, and the United States, succeeded in watering down the proposals.
However, by the late s, grassroots movements in Europe and the United States succeeded in pressuring their governments into imposing economic and cultural sanctions on Pretoria.
Congress passed the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act inmany large multinational companies withdrew from South Africa. By the late s, the South African economy was struggling with the effects of the internal and external boycotts as well as the burden of its military commitment in occupying Namibia.
Defenders of the Apartheid regime, both inside and outside South Africa, had promoted it as a bulwark against communism.
However, the end of the Cold War rendered this argument obsolete. South Africa had illegally occupied neighboring Namibia at the end of World War II, and since the mids, Pretoria had used it as a base to fight the communist party in Angola.
In the s, hard-line anti-communists in Washington continued to promote relations with the Apartheid government despite economic sanctions levied by the U. However, the relaxation of Cold War tensions led to negotiations to settle the Cold War conflict in Angola.
When South Africa reached a multilateral agreement in to end its occupation of Namibia in return for a Cuban withdrawal from Angola, even the most ardent anti-communists in the United States lost their justification for support of the Apartheid regime. The effects of the internal unrest and international condemnation led to dramatic changes beginning in South African Prime Minister P.
Botha resigned after it became clear that he had lost the faith of the ruling National Party NP for his failure to bring order to the country.
His successor, F W de Klerk, in a move that surprised observers, announced in his opening address to Parliament in February that he was lifting the ban on the ANC and other black liberation parties, allowing freedom of the press, and releasing political prisoners.
The country waited in anticipation for the release of Nelson Mandela who walked out of prison after 27 years on February 11, After speaking to throngs of supporters in Cape Town where he pledged to continue the struggle, but advocated peaceful change, Mandela took his message to the international media.
He embarked on a world tour culminating in a visit to the United States where he spoke before a joint session of Congress.The election was the last racially based South African general election. The NP won 93 seats, the Democratic Party (DP) of Zach de Beer, Denis Worrall and Wynand Malan won 33 seats and the Conservative Party of Andries Treurnicht won 39 seats in the seat House of Assembly.
South Africa – Calendar with holidays. Yearly calendar showing months for the year Calendars – online and print friendly – for any year and month. The discovery of the Witwatersrand goldfields in was a turning point in South Africa’s history.
The demand for franchise rights for English-speaking immigrants working on the new goldfields was the pretext Britain used to go to war with the Transvaal and Orange Free State in A chronology of key events in the history of South Africa from 4th-century migrations to the present day.
- FW de Klerk replaces PW Botha as president, meets Mandela. Public facilities. was a turning point in political history because a wave of revolutions swept the Eastern Bloc in Europe, starting in Poland and Hungary, P.W.
Botha resigns as State President of South Africa. F. W.
de Klerk becomes the seventh and final State President of South Africa. Hurricane Hugo (Category 5) strikes Puerto Rico, St. Croix, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, South Carolina and North Carolina, the hurricane claimed over 80 lives and in was the costliest hurricane in financial terms up the that date.