Shipments of food were especially vital in the post-war years, and this may have been when the idea of food self-sufficiency took off. The political aim of this was to help the crippled agricultural sector of post-war Europe to produce more and to guarantee farmers an adequate standard of living. They all look extremely happy here in to agree on a common ag policy!
This transition was most obvious in the countryside.
After land reform had been carried out, mutual aid teams allowed the communists to experiment with voluntary forms of agricultural collectivization. A campaign was launched in late to organize into small collectives, called lower-level agricultural… Some Soviet leaders considered collective farms a socialist form of land tenure and therefore desirable; but they advocated a gradual transition to them in order to avoid disrupting the agricultural productivity necessary to stimulate industrial growth.
Other leaders favoured rapid industrialization and, consequently, wanted immediate, forced collectivization; they argued not only that the large kolkhozy could use heavy machinery more efficiently and produce larger crops than could numerous small, individual farms but that they could be controlled more effectively by the state.
|Common agricultural policy||Energy union and climate change — Net greenhouse gas emissions from EU agriculture continued to fall in to million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, down from nearly million tonnes in the baseline year of Digital single market — Broadband access in rural areas is improving.|
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|Search form||Common agricultural policy What is the common agricultural policy? Increase agricultural productivity thus to ensure a fair standard of living for agricultural producers Stabilise markets Assure availability of supplies Ensure reasonable prices to consumers In fact, with countries outside the EU generally able to produce agricultural products at far lower prices than member states - either because of the enormous size and the scale of their industries eg the USA, Canada or because of lower standards eg the developing world - the EU is largely keeping prices up.|
As a result, they could be forced to sell a large proportion of their output to the state at low government prices, thereby enabling the state to acquire the capital necessary for the development of heavy industry.
A decision was made by the 15th Congress of the Communist Party December to undertake collectivization at a gradual pace, allowing the peasantry to join kolkhozy voluntarily. Intensive collectivization began during the winter of — Harsh measures—including land confiscations, arrests, and deportations to prison camps—were inflicted upon all peasants who resisted collectivization.
By March more than one-half of the peasantry a larger proportion in the agriculturally rich southwestern region of the Soviet Union had been forced to join collective farms. But the peasants objected violently to abandoning their private farms. In many cases, before joining the kolkhozy they slaughtered their livestock and destroyed their equipment.
The losses, as well as the animosity toward the Soviet regime, became so great that Stalin decided to slow down the collectivization process.
Immediately, many peasants left the kolkhozy. In March approximately 58 percent of the peasant households had been enrolled in kolkhozy; by June only about 24 percent remained. In the fall of the drive was renewed at a slower pace, but with equal determination.
The application of various administrative pressures—including punitive measures—resulted in the recollectivization of one-half of the peasants by By the government had collectivized almost all the peasantry. But in the process millions of those who had offered resistance had been deported to prison camps and removed from productive activity in agriculture.
Furthermore, the absence of heavy agricultural machinery and of the horses and cattle that the peasants had killed seriously handicapped the new collective farms. Output fell, but the government, nevertheless, extracted the large amounts of agricultural products it needed to acquire the capital for industrial investment; this caused a major famine in the countryside —33 and the deaths of millions of peasants.
Despite these great costs, the forced collectivization achieved the final establishment of Soviet power in the countryside. Through collectivization agriculture was integrated with the rest of the state-controlled economy, and the state was supplied with the capital it required to transform the Soviet Union into a major industrial power.
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EuroCARE GmbH Bonn is a consultancy specialized in quantitative and qualitative analysis of agricultural and environmental policies.
Our mission is to deliver scientifically sound and independent analysis, bridging the gap between academic research and policy design. The key objectives of the common agricultural policy (CAP), as enshrined in the EU treaties, are to: Increase agricultural productivity thus to ensure a fair standard of living for agricultural producers; stabilise markets; assure availability of supplies; ensure reasonable prices to consumers.
The agricultural sector is one of the main land users in Europe and thus shapes landscapes in rural areas. It has various direct and indirect impacts on the environment and depends itself on natural resources.
Patterns of agricultural production vary considerably across Europe and no .