Bibliography Definition An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: Importance of a Good Abstract Sometimes your professor will ask you to include an abstract, or general summary of your work, with your research paper. The abstract allows you to elaborate upon each major aspect of the paper and helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract.
The primary target of this paper is the young researcher; however, authors with all levels of experience may find useful ideas in the paper. Earlier articles offered suggestions on how to write a good case report,[ 1 ] and how to read, write, or review a paper on randomized controlled trials.
Although the primary target of this paper is the young researcher, it is likely that authors with all levels of experience will find at least a few ideas that may be useful in their future efforts. The abstract of a paper is the only part of the paper that is published in conference proceedings.
The abstract is the only part of the paper that a potential referee sees when he is invited by an editor to review a manuscript. The abstract is the only part of the paper that readers see when they search through electronic databases such as PubMed.
Finally, most readers will acknowledge, with a chuckle, that when they leaf through the hard copy of a journal, they look at only the titles of the contained papers. If a title interests them, they glance through the abstract of that paper.
Only a dedicated reader will peruse the contents of the paper, and then, most often only the introduction and discussion sections.
Only a reader with a very specific interest in the subject of the paper, and a need to understand it thoroughly, will read the entire paper. Thus, for the vast majority of readers, the paper does not exist beyond its abstract.
For the referees, and the few readers who wish to read beyond the abstract, the abstract sets the tone for the rest of the paper. It is therefore the duty of the author to ensure that the abstract is properly representative of the entire paper.
For this, the abstract must have some general qualities. These are listed in Table 1. The usual sections defined in a structured abstract are the Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions; other headings with similar meanings may be used eg, Introduction in place of Background or Findings in place of Results.
Some journals include additional sections, such as Objectives between Background and Methods and Limitations at the end of the abstract. In the rest of this paper, issues related to the contents of each section will be examined in turn.
Background This section should be the shortest part of the abstract and should very briefly outline the following information: What is already known about the subject, related to the paper in question What is not known about the subject and hence what the study intended to examine or what the paper seeks to present In most cases, the background can be framed in just 2—3 sentences, with each sentence describing a different aspect of the information referred to above; sometimes, even a single sentence may suffice.
The purpose of the background, as the word itself indicates, is to provide the reader with a background to the study, and hence to smoothly lead into a description of the methods employed in the investigation.
Some authors publish papers the abstracts of which contain a lengthy background section. There are some situations, perhaps, where this may be justified.Central Components of an APA Style Abstract An effective, comprehensive abstract is defined by the following central components: • It accurately reflects the purpose and essential content of the paper.
The abstract of a paper is the only part of the paper that is published in conference proceedings. The abstract is the only part of the paper that a potential referee sees when he is invited by an editor to review a . The abstract of a paper is the only part of the paper that is published in conference proceedings.
The abstract is the only part of the paper that a potential referee sees when he is invited by an editor to review a . important components of a research article. if they will read the rest of the paper.
Content: The abstract is written as a mini paper, i.e., it contains the following i nformation in this order: 1. whereas the information from #1 and #2 are essential components of an introduction, some. This research looks at the work of Margaret C.
Anderson, the editor of the Little Review.
The review published first works by Sherwood Anderson, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, and Ezra Pound. This research draws upon mostly primary sources including memoirs, published letters, and a complete collection of the Little Review.
HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH ABSTRACT Research abstracts are used throughout the research community to provide a concise description These are the basic components of an abstract in any discipline: 1) Motivation/problem statement: about the research than about the paper.